Joy Y Kiddie MSc., RD - I'm a Registered Dietitian in private practice in British Columbia, Canada that provides services in-person in my Coquitlam office, as well as by Distance Consultation (using Skype / telephone).
What would a childâ€™s Barbie doll actually look like if she were modeled after the average American woman? An article written by Nina Bahadur in The Huffington Post on July 1, 2013 is very telling, indeed!
Artist Nickolay LammÂ usedÂ average height, weight and waist circumference data from the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for women age 20 years old and over to create a 3-D model that looks like the â€œaverageâ€ American woman.Â What does she look like? Well, she is 5â€™ 3 Â¾â€ (63.8 inches), weighs 166.2 lbs and has a waist circumference of 37 Â½ inches. Lamm then used PhotoshopÂ® to edit the 3-D model to make it look like a Barbie doll.
Then, Lamm photographed this â€œaverage American Barbieâ€ doll next to a standard Barbie doll, like millions of children around the world play with. How different do they look? Very different, it turns out.
Here is a photograph;
An interesting question is, what effect is the image of the â€œidealâ€ Barbie having on young girls body image?
In an email to The Huffington Post, Lamm said “If we criticize skinny models, we should at least be open to the possibility that Barbie may negatively influence young girls as well.”
1. Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Measured average height, weight, and waist circumference for adults ages 20 years and over, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/bodymeas.htm
2. Normal’ Barbie By Nickolay Lamm Shows Us What Mattel Dolls Might Look Like If Based On Actual Women, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/07/01/normal-barbie-nickolay-lamm_n_3529460.html
Dopamine is the chemical associated with the brainâ€™s reward, pleasure and addiction centre and is also released in the eye in response to light exposure. Dopamine is also one of the neurotransmitters believed to be involved in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) which is often treated with medications such as methylphenidate (RitalinÂ®).
OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY
A small study of nine overweight patients without eating disorders was conducted at the New York Obesity Nutrition Research Center and published in the journal Obesity on June 20, 2013.Â Researchers used a tool called electroretinography (ERG) to measure increases of dopamine in the retina of subjectâ€™s eyes as they ate a piece of chocolate brownie. Electroretinography is a non-invasive tool normally used by ophthalmologists to look for retinal damage.
Researchers found a surge in dopamine activity in participants when the eye was exposed to a flash of light just as the subject ate a piece of brownie. A similar spike was noticed when subjects were given the drug methylphenidate (RitalinÂ®), used in the management of ADHD to trigger a dopamine response. The responses in the presence of chocolate and methylphenidate (RitalinÂ®) were each significantly greater than the response to light when participants ingested a control substance, water.
SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS
These findings were significant since prior to this study, the eyeâ€™s dopamine system was considered separate from the rest of the brainâ€™s dopamine system. If this technique is validated through additional and larger studies, researchers may be able to use electroretinography (ERG) to study food addiction.
BENEFITS OF STUDY
The low cost ($150) and ease of performing electroretinography (each session generates 200 scans in just two minutes) make it an appealing method when compared with procedures to measure dopamine responses directly from the brain, which are significantly more expensive and invasive. PET scans of the brain costs about $2,000 per session and takes more than an hour to generate a scan.
Since food is necessary as a nutrient delivery system for people but also plays a role as a pleasure delivery system, being able to inexpensively and non-invasively measure the effect of dopamine release in the eyes when certain foods are eaten may be able to be used in the future to maximize the pleasure and nutritional value of food and minimize side effects, such as consuming excess calories and corresponding weight gain.
A food allergy is a serious and sometimes life-threatening reaction to a component of a food that involves the immune system (a network of cell types that work together to defend and protect the body from viruses, infections and disease). When exposed to the allergen, the person’s immune system over-reacts, resulting in the reaction.
Allergens are Related to Protein Sequences
Allergens in foods are composed of a particular sequence of amino acids that make up the protein part of that food.
If you think of proteins as a train, the amino acids are the individual â€˜carsâ€™. The â€˜carsâ€™ can be in different orders. Say you have only five â€˜carsâ€™ in a train (a,b,c,d and e) they could be ordered a,b,c,d,e or a,c,b,e,d or a,d,e,b,c etc. An allergy is when your body overreacts to a very particular amino acid sequence in that protein (e.g. a,d,e,b,c). Whenever your immune system sees that amino acid sequence in any food, it will respond as if it were being attacked and launch an immune-system response.
In long protein chains, the particular sequence that causes the immune reaction may appear somewhere within many other amino acid sequences that do not.
Often time, people say they are â€˜allergicâ€™ to a food because it makes them feel unwell when they eat it, but they may actually be â€˜intolerantâ€™ to it, rather than actually allergic. Some of the symptoms of food intolerance and food allergy are similar, but the difference between the food intolerance and food allergy is important. If you are allergic to a food, the allergen triggers a response of the immune system.
Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome is a serious type of food allergy triggered by eating or drinking a food allergen and which results in vomiting and diarrhea.
Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome often develops in babies, usually when they are introduced to solid food or formula containing the food. In some cases, symptoms can be severe enough to cause dehydration and shock brought on by low blood pressure. The most common culprits include milk, soy and grains.
Antibodies or IgE-mediated Allergic Reactions
In some allergy, your immune system may produce antibodies called Immunoglobulin E (IgE) to a specific protein (amino acid sequence). These antibodies are responsible for the release of specific chemicals that result in an allergic reaction and a full-scale response of the immune system. This reaction usually causes symptoms in the nose, lungs, throat, sinuses, ears, lining of the stomach or on the skin. Each type of IgE reacts only to a specific allergen, so some people are only allergic to one food because they only have one IgE antibody to that substance. Other people may have several IgE antibodies to different foods and therefore will have an immune response to several different foods.
Allergies: Mild to Life-Threatening
Food allergy reactions can be mild like itchy skin or hives (raised red bumps on the skin) or be life-threatening, such as anaphylaxis which causes a person to be unable to breathe and go into shock (drop in blood pressure). People with this type of allergy must be very careful to avoid the food s they are allergic to, as coming into contact with even a tiny amount of the food can be trigger a life threatening immune-system reaction.
Note: If you know someone with food allergies, please click the “share” button so that others may know how serious, and even life-threatening this can be.
Being allergic to a food (or more specifically, being allergic to a particular amino acid sequence in that food) may also result in being allergic to a similar protein found in something else. For example, if you are allergic to banana, you may also develop reactions to papaya or kiwi. This is known as cross-reactivity. Cross-reactivity occurs when the immune system recognizes an amino acid sequence (or part of that amino acid sequence) in a protein in a food from the same â€˜familyâ€™ of fruit or vegetable one is allergic to.
Cross-reactivity can also occur in those with a latex allergy (which is â€œrubberâ€; the liquid found in the center of certain tropical plants) and foods such as bananas, avocados, kiwi, chestnut and papaya (which originate from trees that contain latex in their core).
Allergies may be screened for using a skin prick test. In skin testing, an Allergist (a physician with a specialty in allergy) places a small amount of an extract made from the food on the patient’s back or arm. Â If a raised bump or small hive of bumps develops within 20 minutes, it indicates a possible allergy.
Those with serious or life-threatening allergens will have antibodies (IgE or IgA) to that specific protein present in their blood (e.g. IgE antibody to peanut). The presence of these antibodies can be determine by a blood test.
Many food allergies are first diagnosed in young children, though they may also appear in older children and adults. While many children outgrow a food allergy they had a young children, it is also possible for adults to develop allergies to particular foods they have been exposed to repeatedly over time, with no previous reaction.
Major Food Allergens
Eight foods are responsible for the majority of allergic reactions:
â€¢ Cowâ€™s milk
â€¢ Tree nuts
More recently, sesame has been added to this list, as well as mustard seed.
Oral Allergy Syndrome
When people are allergic to non-foods (such as tree or grass pollen) may also react to foods that are in the same “family” as the tree or grass pollen. That is, there is a common amino acid sequence in the food as in the pollen. This is known as Oral Allergy Syndrome (OAS).
For example, if you are allergic to ragweed, you may also develop reactions to bananas or melons. This reaction occurs because the proteins found in the fruit or vegetable are very similar to the protein (or more specifically the amino acid sequence) found in pollen from trees and grasses. The proteins in the food are identified by the bodyâ€™s immune system and cause an allergic reaction; a response of their immune system.
The most frequent allergic reaction involves itchiness or swelling of the mouth, face, lip, tongue and throat. Symptoms usually appear immediately after eating raw fruit or vegetables, although the reaction can occur an hour or more later. In rare and very serious cases, Oral Allergy Syndrome can cause severe throat swelling or even a systemic reaction, called anaphylaxis.
If one is allergic to birch tree pollen, for example (a primary airborne allergen responsible for symptoms in the springtime) that person may have allergic reactions triggered by peach, apple, pear, kiwi, plum, coriander, fennel, parsley, celery, cherry and carrot and some tree nuts such as almond and walnut.
People with allergies to grasses (also a springtime airborne allergen) may also have a reaction to peaches, celery, tomatoes, melons (cantaloupe, watermelon and honeydew) and oranges.
Those with reactions to ragweed (a late summer and fall airborne allergen) may also have symptoms when eating foods such as banana, cucumber, melon, and zucchini.
If one has Oral Allergy Syndrome, avoid eating foods in the same family as the pollen (especially during the allergy season of the pollen) may minimize the symptoms and/or the likelihood of severe allergic reactions. Taking oral antihistamines during the specific pollen season may also reduce the risk of a severe allergic reaction.
Immediate or Delayed-Onset Anaphylaxis
The majority of people with anaphylaxis react within seconds or minutes of being exposed to the food they are allergic to (common with peanut allergy), but another form of anaphylaxis results in people not reacting for 6-8 hours after consuming the food (or a commonly a food that has inadvertently been exposed to that allergen via cross-contamination in the kitchen). This is known as â€œdelayed onset anaphylaxisâ€. It is associated with the same life threatening symptoms (being unable to breath, sudden drop in blood pressure, etc); with the only difference being how much time it takes for the immune system to launch a full-scale counter attack against exposure to the allergen. Food, medications, insect stings and exposure to latex can all trigger anaphylaxis.
Advice for those with Serious Food Allergies / Anaphylaxis — and those that know them
People with anaphylactic allergies are advised to carry with them at least one Epipen (an injection of epinephrine / adrenaline that can be self-administered) in the event of exposure. Don’t be embarrassed to let other’s know what foods you are seriously allergic to and that you carry an Epipen and where it is. That wonderful looking chocolate ice-cream cake may actually be a peanut butter chocolate ice-cream cake and you may only find out too late.
Teaching others how to use your Epipen on your behalf before an allergic reaction occurs is also wise idea. There is little time when you can’t inhale or exhale for someone to read the instructions contained with the Epipen! Ask them to call 911 as soon as possible if they see you are having a serious allergic reaction. Wearing a medical alert bracelet is an important way to let others know that you have a serious food allergy and that you carry an Epipen. It “speaks” for you when you are unable to breathe. Medical necklaces are also available. I even saw one young woman with a medical alert tattoo on her wrist!
Also, if you don’t have serious food allergies but know someone that does, please ask them to show you how to use their Epipen for them. It may be obvious to them which end of the Epipen goes into theur leg, but when they aren’t breathing they can’t tell you. You need to know what to do quickly in order to intervene. Please remember to call 911 as soon as possible so that you can get the person medical attention once the Epipen has been administered.
NOTE: If you know anyone with food allergies, please click one the “share” button to let others know how serious and even life-threatening a food allergy can be and more importantly, what they can do to possibly save a life.
With the recent few hot, sunny days, I thought it would be helpful to write about factors to think about when considering getting your body ready for summer. For many people, that means losing a few pounds to look good in a bathing suit or a pair of shorts, but where do we get our idea about what a healthy body image is?Â Is it really the media? What role does exercise play and how many calories do we need to burn to lose a pound of fat? How do we know what a healthy body weight is for us; is it really off some chart? Is weight for height the best indicator of reduced health risk? What about waist circumference?Â What food or drink may make it harder to lose a few pounds or easier to lose a bit of fat around our middles?
Healthy Body Image
Getting ready for summer often has a great deal to do with what we think about ourselves and what we think we â€˜shouldâ€™ look like. Factors that contribute to our body image range from the media (TV, movies, advertising), what our friends and family think, to our own self esteem and feelings of self-worth. A recent study [Vanvonderen & Kinnally, 2012] of 285 female undergraduates found that comparison to media figures was associated with an internalization of a â€˜thin idealâ€™, but comparisons with oneâ€™s friends and oneâ€™s own self-esteem were the strongest indicators of body dissatisfaction.
Body Mass Index (BMI) as a Measure of Healthy Weight
The measure of Body Mass Index (BMI) or the Quatelet Index dates from 1832 and has become a standard for measuring who is â€œnormalâ€ weight, who is â€œoverweightâ€ and whoâ€™s â€œobeseâ€.
BMI is calculated by dividing a person’s weight (in kilograms) by their height (in meters, squared) and for our American friends, by multiplying weight (in pounds) by 705, then dividing by height (in inches) twice.
A person with a BMI of
18.5 to 24.9 is considered to be at a healthy body weight
25 – 29.9 is considered to be overweight
anything over 30 is considered to be at various stages of obesity
30.0â€“34.9 is considered class I obesity
35.0â€“39.9 is considered class II obesity
Anything over 40 is considered class III obesity (also called â€˜morbidly obeseâ€™) and this can increases a person’s risk of death from any cause by 50% to 150%.
But using BMI alone as an indicator of healthy weight has some drawbacks as it says nothing about a personâ€™s body composition, distribution of fat or fitness level. Very muscular people may have a high BMI but be mostly muscle and have very little fat, whereas very inactive people may have a normal BMI but a higher fat percentage than ideal.Â As well, there are differences between ethnic backgrounds.Â Studies have found that people of Asian descent have high risks of many diseases such as diabetes at BMIs that would be considered â€˜normalâ€™ for white people whereas many African-Americans may have high BMI measures, but no associated health risks.
Waist Circumference versus BMI as a Measure of Risk
People that carry their weight around their middles have been known for some time to be at increased risk â€“ so called â€œapplesâ€ versus â€œpearsâ€.Â Increased waist circumference and fat carried around the middle (known as â€˜central adiposityâ€™) is associated with higher incidence of diabetes and heart disease, as well as death from those diseases. Â A recent study [Staiano AE et al] looked at data from 8061 adults (aged 18-74 years) in the Canadian Heart Health Follow-Up Study (1986-2004) and found that BMI and waist circumference predicted higher all-cause and cause-specific death from disease with waist circumference predicting the highest risk for death.Â Among overweight and obese adults, a large waist circumference was a much stronger predictor of death from heart attack than BMI.
Diet and Exercise
Although people often focus on diet when they’re trying to lose a few pounds, being active also is an important component. When you’re active, your body uses the calories in the food you eat as a source of energy, rather than storing the excess calories as fat. To lose a pound of fat requires either burning an extra 3500 calories, eating that many fewer calories or a combination of both.
The nicer weather in the spring and summer makes burning a few extra calories easier; whether it’s throwing a Frisbee around with a few friends, hopping on a bicycle to go to the store or going for a power-walk at the local track, it’s all good! If you’re more competitive, there’s tennis or squash and if you’re team oriented there is always football, soccer, baseball or a good Canadian game of street hockey. Even a swim in a cold, clear lake counts as exercise if you do it long enough!
Whatever activity you choose, the important thing is to do it regularly. Aim for at about a 150 minutes a week of moderate physical activity or an hour and a half of vigorous aerobic activity spread throughout the week. How do you know if it is vigorous or “aerobic” enough? If you are working up a sweat but can still carry on a conversation, it “counts”.
Does Beer Really Cause Beer Belly?
With the NHL Hockey playoffs in full swing and summer BBQs often including a â€œcold oneâ€ just around the corner, many people have asked me if beer really the culprit in â€œbeer bellyâ€?Â While beer has many health benefits (see https://www.bbdnutrition.com/2013/05/04/stanley-cup-special-the-health-benefits-of-beer/) each bottle or can (355 ml / 12 oz) of regular beer does have about 150 calories and since each pound of weight gain is related to an extra 3500 calories we ate or drank, regularly drinking beer can definitely contribute to weight gain.Â In those predisposed to carrying their weight around their middles, as well as those with family risk of diabetes and/or heart disease, there really is the need to calculate the â€˜costâ€™ of those cold ones, As for whether beer itself is the culprit behind â€œbeer bellyâ€, I will be addressing that in an upcoming article. Stay tuned.
Green Tea Powder, Weight Loss and Abdominal Fat Loss
A 2009 combining of data from 11 green tea catechin studies found that people that consumed between 1 â€“ 4 tsp of green tea powder (matcha) per dayÂ lost an average of 1.31 kg (~ 3 lbs) overÂ 12 weeksÂ [Hursel].Â Even with such small amounts of weight loss, theÂ total amount of abdominal fat decreases 25 times moreÂ with green tea powder than without itÂ and the total amount of subcutaneous (under the skin) abdominal fatÂ decreased almost 8 timesÂ more with green tea powder.Â For more information on these findings as well as a recipe for a cool, refreshing matcha drink, please click on the following link https://www.bbdnutrition.com/2013/04/18/matcha-in-weight-and-abdominal-fat-loss/
Now is the Best Time to Lose Weight
People often think of New Years in terms of timing to lose a few pounds but research has found that half of those that started the New Year with a resolution to lose weight, eat healthy or get in shape had already given up only one week into the year!Â By the end of the month,Â more than 80% percent had given up!
A landmark study from the University of Scrantonâ€™s Journal of Clinical PsychologyÂ found that those that made weight loss goals at times other than New Years were actually 11 times more likely to be successful than those that made a New Yearâ€™s resolution to lose weight [Norcross et al].Â So â€œnowâ€ is the best time, whenever â€œnowâ€ is.
More than a Resolution
Studies show that losing weight takes a lot more than a resolution, but a plan and time and support until the changes become new habits.
Research published in the European Journal of Social Psychology [Lally et al, 2010] found that it takes about 66 days (i.e. 2-3 months) to actually create a habit, so starting now and having a plan and support to sustain the changes through the summer will enable you, not only to lose weight, but keep it off.
BetterByDesign Nutritionâ€™s Registered Dietitian can design an Individualized eating plan just for you; based on your body measurements and composition, medical history, familial risk factors, as well as your lifestyle and food preferences.Â Having a plan designed to meet your own weight loss goals within your time-frame can make all the difference!
We are able to support you in achieving your desired weight loss, but as importantly, can help you make the habit changes needed to keep it off over the long term.
For more information, please click on the â€œContact Usâ€ tab above or on the following link to send our Dietitian, Joy Kiddie a note email@example.com.
Hursel R, Viechtbauer W, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. The effects of green tea on weight loss and weight maintenance: a meta-analysis. Int J Obes (Lond) 2009;33:956â€“61.
Lally, P., van Jaarsveld, C. H. M., Potts, H. W. W. and Wardle, J. (2010), How are habits formed: Modelling habit formation in the real world. Eur. J. Soc. Psychol., 40: 998â€“1009.
Norcross, JC et al, Auld lang syne: success predictors, change processes, and self-reported outcomes of New Yearâ€™s resolvers and nonresolvers. J Clin Psychol. 2002 Apr;58(4):397-405
Vanvonderen KE, Kinnally W, â€œMedia Effects on Body Image: Examining Media Exposure in the Broader Context of Internal and Other Social Factorsâ€, Amer Comm Journal, 2012, 14(2)
Staiano AE,Â Reeder BA,Â Elliott S,Â Joffres MR et al, Body mass index versus waist circumference as predictors of mortality in Canadian adults. Int J Obesity,Â 2012 Nov;36(11):1450
Research indicates that beer does have health benefits when consumed in moderation; that is, one 355 ml (12 oz) beer per day for women and two for men.
Heavy drinking increases the risk of liver damage (cirrhosis) and heart problems and can definitely add increased weight, since one 355 ml of regular beer has about 150 calories and light beer has about 100.
Just in time for the Stanley Cup Playoffs, here are a few healthy benefits of moderate beer drinking.
Good Source of Vitamin B6
An 1999 study from Holland [Van der Gaag et al] found that healthy beer-drinking men between the ages of 44-59 had 30% higher levels of vitamin B6 in their blood than their non-drinking counterparts, and twice as much as wine drinkers.Â
An 1998 study from Finland Â [Hirvonen T et al] found that beer drinking lowered smoking menâ€™s risk of developing kidney stones by 40% for each bottle of beer consumed., in moderation. The hops in beer may help slow leeching of calcium from bones; calcium that could end up in the kidneys as stones.
A beer a day may help keep Alzheimerâ€™s disease and other dementia at bay, researchers say.
A 2005 study of 11,000 older women [Stapher et al] found that those who consumed about one drink a day lowered their risk of mental decline by as much as 20 % compared to non-drinkers and scored as about 18 months â€œyounger,â€ on average, on tests of mental skills than the non-drinkers.Â
A 2009 study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition looked at the bone mineral density (BMD) in 1182 men and 1289 postmenopausal women and 248 premenopausal women from the Framingham Offspring group, aged 29-86 years old. The study found that older men and women who drank one or two alcoholic drinks per day had higher bone density, with the greatest benefits found in those who favored beer or wine. However, drinking more than two drinks per day was linked to increased risk for fractures.
The best bone-building benefits are found in pale ale, as these beers are richest in silicon, which is linked to better bone health.
A 2011 met study by Constanzo et al which combined data from 16 earlier studies (involving more than 200,000 people) found that people that drank a little more than a pint of beer (475 ml) per day were 30% less likely than non-drinkers to suffer from cardiovascular events like strokes, heart attacks and heart disease. Researchers believe that the main benefit may be due to beerâ€™s high polyphenol content, a potent anti-oxidant. A beer or two a day can also help raise levels of HDL, the so-called â€œgoodâ€ cholesterol that helps keep arteries from getting clogged.
The down side is that the research also found that drinking four or more beer (or wine) per day actually puts your heart at risk.
Protective against Diabetes
A 2011 study of more than 38,000 middle-aged men [Joosten et al] drawn from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, found that when those who only drank occasionally raised their intake to one to two beers (or other drinks) daily, their risk of developing type 2 diabetes dropped by 25 %. Â The researchers found that alcohol increases insulin sensitivity, thus helping protect against diabetes.Â
Lower Blood PressureÂ
A 2002 study of 70,000 women between the ages of 25 to 40 drawn from the Nurses Health Study II found that moderate beer drinkers were less likely to develop high blood pressure (hypertension) which is a major risk factor for heart attack than women who drank wine or hard alcohol.
Having a beer or two a day may lower your risk of heart attack and stroke, increase your insulin sensitivity, lower your risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, dementia, kidney stones and hip fractures and provide a good source of Vitamin B6. Besides, there’s nothing like a cold beer with some good friends or family and cheering for your favourite hockey team. Â Enjoy the Stanley Cup Playoffs!
Costanzo S e al â€œWine, beer or spirit drinking in relation to fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events: a meta-analysisâ€, Nov 2011, Eur J of Epidemiology
Hirvonen T, Pietinen P, Viranen M et al, â€œNutrient Intake and Use of Beverages and the Risk of Kidney Stones among Male Smokersâ€, 1998, Amer J of Epidemiology 150(2), 187-194
Joosten MM, Chuive SE, Makamal KJ et al â€œChanges in Alcohol Consumption and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Menâ€, Diabetes, 2011, Vol 60, pg 74-79
Stampher MJ, Kang JH Chen J et al, â€œEffects of moderate Alcohol Consumption on Cognitive Function in Womenâ€ N Engl J of Med, 2005, 352:245-253
Thadhani R, Camargo CA, Stamper MJ et al, Prospective Study of Moderate Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Hypertension in Young Women, J Amer Med Assoc, 2002, Vol 162(5): 569-574
Tucker KL, Jugdoahsign R, Powel JJ et al, Am J Clin Nutr April 2009;vol. 89 (4), pg. 1188-1196
Van der Gaag MS, Ubbink JB, Sillanaukee P et al, â€œEffect of Consumpition of red wine, spirits and beer on serum homcysteine, Research Letters, The Lancet, Vol 355, pg 1522
We often hear that a food or beverage is “high in antioxidantsâ€ but what exactly is an antioxidant? Â Why would we want to eat foods that are a high in them and which foods are the best sources?
What is an Antioxidant?
Simply put, an antioxidant is a molecule that keeps another from oxidizing. Oxidation is chemical reaction that transfers a hydrogen atom or electrons from one substance to an oxidizing agent.Â This process can produce something called a â€œfree radicalâ€ or â€œreactive oxygen speciesâ€ which can start a chain reaction in a cell that can cause damage or death to the cell.
Different Types of Antioxidants
Antioxidants are classified into two categories, depending on whether they are soluble in water or in fat (lipids). Â In general, water-soluble antioxidants protect the inside of the cellÂ and the blood plasma, while fat-soluble antioxidants generally protectÂ cell membranesÂ from lipid peroxidation (rancidity).
What do Antioxidants do?
Oxidation reactions are not bad in and by themselves, in fact they are necessary for life, but it is the production of these â€œfree-radicalâ€ byproducts that are thought to be linked to cell damage that may result in cancer and coronary heart disease. Chemically, antioxidants act as â€œfree radical scavengersâ€ and prevent these harmful reactions from occurring.
Antioxidants in the food industry were originally used to prevent fats from going rancid [German JB et al].
Vitamin A, C and E are naturally occurring antioxidants contained in foods and that when present in insufficient amounts, may lead to something called â€œoxidative stressâ€ and damage to cells.
What is Oxidative Stress?
A common â€œreactive oxygen speciesâ€ is hydrogen peroxideÂ (H2O2); yes the same substance that is used in first aid. The â€œhydroxyl radicalâ€ (-OH) that forms from hydrogen peroxide and other similar â€œreactive oxygen speciesâ€, is very unstable and will react quickly with almost any biological molecule, in order to become stable.Â These oxidants can damage cells by starting chemical chain reactions such as lipid peroxidation (essentially making the fat in cells rancid), or by oxidizing DNA or proteins.
Oxidative stress is thought to be linked to a wide range of diseases but it is unclear if oxidants trigger the disease or if they are produced as a result of the disease; a byproduct of tissue damage.
The oxidation of the so-called â€œbadâ€ low density lipoproteinÂ (LDL) oxidation appears to trigger the process ofÂ atherosclerosis or â€œhardening of the arteriesâ€; underlying heart disease. Oxidative damage to DNA is believed to be linked to cancer.
Antioxidants in Foods
Research indicates that diets high in fruit and vegetables (rich sources of antioxidants) reduce the risk of several chronic diseases [USDA, 2010] and prevent approximately 30% of cancer deaths [Hiatt RA et al].Â Other foods, such as grains, legumes and nuts are also good sources of antioxidants.
Effect of Cooking and Storage on Antioxidants in Foods
Some antioxidants, such as lycopene (a type of carotenoid from tomatoes) and ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) are destroyed by long-term storage or prolonged cooking.Â Other antioxidant compounds are more stable, such as the antioxidants in foods such as whole-wheat cereals and tea.
Side Effects of Antioxidants â€“ in Mineral Metabolism
Foods that are high in antioxidants (i.e. are strong reducing agents) may bind in the gastrointestinal tract to trace minerals such as zincÂ andÂ ironÂ and major minerals such asÂ calcium; preventing them from being absorbed.Â Some examples of these reducing agents are;
oxalic acidÂ (found in high quantities in cocoa beans and chocolate), spinach, turnip and rhubarb
phytic acidÂ found in high quantities in whole grains, corn and legumes (such as chickpeas, lentils, pinto beans, etc)
tanninsÂ (found in tea, beans and cabbage)
What about taking Antioxidant Supplements?
Early studies seemed to indicate that antioxidants taken as supplements (pills / capsules) might be beneficial, but large clinical studies suggest that not only do they not seem to have benefit; they may even be harmful [Bjelakovic G et al].
Which Foods are Highest in Antioxidants?
In a landmark study by Wu et al, the â€œtotal antioxidant capacityâ€ of both lipophilic (fat soluble) and hydrophilic (water soluble) antioxidant components in over 100 different foods were measured; including fruits, vegetables, nuts, dried fruits, spices and cereals. These are listed, below. You will notice that some foods are in both categories, which means they have both hydrophilic (water soluble) and lipophylic (fat soluble) antioxidants.
It is important to keep in mind that there are several factors that may affect the antioxidant capacity of foods, including processing of the food, genetics, season, and growing conditions.
Foods highest in hydrophylic (water soluble) antioxidants per serving included:
Wild blueberry, red kidney beans, pinto beans, cultivated blueberry, cranberry, artichoke, blackberry, prunes, strawberries, raspberries, Red Delicious and Granny Smith apples, pecans, sweet cherries, black plums, Gala apples, walnuts, Golden Delicious and Fuji apples, Deglet Noor dates, Green and Red Anjou pears, hazelnuts, navel oranges, figs, Haas avocadoes, broccoli raab, red cabbage, pistachio nuts, Medjool dates, navy beans and red grapes
Foods highest in lipophylic (fat-soluble) antioxidants per serving included:
Haas avocado, navy beans, pinto beans; small red beans, black-eyed peas, broccoli raab, black beans, raspberries, cranberries, spinach, quick oats, Brazil nuts, prunes, blackberry, orange peppers, oranges, walnuts, figs, cashews , yellow pepper, pat bran cereal, old-fashioned oats, pistachios, pecans, artichoke, hazelnuts, corn, pear, red and green leaf lettuce and pumpkin.
Consuming a diet rich in fruit and vegetables. legumes and nuts is an easy and safe way to be assured of getting plenty of antioxidants. Â Remember though, that some of these antioxidant-rich foods may bind nutrients such as iron, zinc and calcium so be sure to not take those foods together. Â For example
drink tea or matcha (powdered green tea) between meals to prevent the binding of the tannins in the tea to iron and zinc
remember that while spinach is a good source of iron, the oxalic acid in it will bind it, making it largely unavailable to the body
to offset the binding of phytic acid in legumes and whole grains, be sure to have rich sources of iron and zinc (such as red meat, oysters, etc) at meals that do not contain large amounts of these foods
With berry season just around the corner, why not indulge in antioxidant rich strawberries, raspberries, blueberries and blackberries? Â Then, anticipate summer with its fresh cherries, black plums, red and green Anjou pears and plenty of fresh salad with green and red leaf lettuce and a handful of nuts on top. Â On a cold fall night, settle into a bowl of three-bean chili with pinto, black and kidney beans or a veggie curry with chickpeas and pumpkin.
Bjelakovic G; Nikolova, D; Gluud, LL; Simonetti, RG; Gluud, C (2007). “Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention: systematic review and meta-analysis”.Â JAMAÂ 297Â (8): 842â€“57.
German, JB (1999). “Food processing and lipid oxidation”.Â Advances in experimental medicine and biology. Advances in Experimental Medicine and BiologyÂ 459: 23â€“50.
Â Hiatt RA, Rimer BK. A new strategy for cancer control research. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1999;8(11):957â€“64
Â Knight, JA (1998). “Free radicals: Their history and current status in aging and disease”.Â Annals of clinical and laboratory scienceÂ 28Â (6): 331â€“46.
Less than 3 gm of carbohydrate at all the health benefits of Matcha!
Recent estimates indicate that aboutÂ 1/3 of the adult population in the US is obeseÂ [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009] and while 2011 estimates in Canada indicate that approximately 1/5 of Canadians adults are classified as obese based on self-reported height and weight [Statistics Canada], studies have found that obesity rates in self-reported weight is ~7.4% higher when based onÂ measuredÂ height and weight [Shields et al]. Â Adjusting for this under self-reporting of weight,Â > 1/4 (25.6%) of the adult population in Canada would be considered obese.Â Recent literature suggests that obesity and the related diseases of â€œmetabolic syndromeâ€ associated with obesity are not just a North American problem either, but a global health problem [Popkin].Although there are many genetic and environmental factors that may predispose people to weight gain, the main cause of overweight and obesity is believed to be anÂ imbalance between dietary intake and energy expenditureÂ (i.e. calories in > calories out). Â Excess fat mass develops over time from a very small positive energy imbalance i.e. just taking in slightly more calories than needed. Â In general, average weight gain per year is small; approximately 1 pound per year across all race, economic, and sex groupsÂ [Brown].There are many strategies used to address weight gain, including;-Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
Dietary approaches;Â whichÂ usually focus on decreasing caloric intake through a variety of means and while some people go on self-chosen â€œdietsâ€ that are bizarre and even dangerous, weight loss will occur as long as energy intake is less than energy expenditure (i.e. calories in < calories out).
-Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Lifestyle strategiesÂ that help individuals identify and modify their eating behaviour and patterns of eating.Â When people understandÂ whyÂ they eat andÂ whenÂ they eat, it is easier for them to make long-term lifestyle changes.
-Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Exercise and increased physical activityÂ to help people attain and maintain a healthy body weight.
-Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Food intake is sometimes addressedÂ pharmacologicallyÂ by doctors by using drugs such as Orlistat (which blocks lipase, an enzyme involved in fat absorption).
-Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Surgical approachesÂ provide the most dramatic weight loss and outside of the cosmetic value, may have a role in reducing long-term mortality and the incidence of diabetes [Bray].
Role of Green Tea Catechins in Weight Loss
Green tea is the unfermented leaves ofÂ theÂ Camellia sinensis plantÂ and contains a number of biologically active compounds calledÂ catechinsÂ and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) makes up almost 30% of the solids in green tea [Kim et al]. Â Recent studies have found that green tea catechins, especially EGCG play a significant role in bothÂ weight lossÂ andÂ body fatÂ composition.
Green Tea Catechins and â€œMetabolic Syndromeâ€
Several large-scale population studies have linked increased green tea consumption with significant reductions in â€œmetabolic syndromeâ€ which is a cluster of diseases that include;
-Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â insulin resistanceÂ orÂ diabetes
-Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â hyperinsulinemiaÂ (high levels of insulin in the blood)
-Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â cardiovascular diseases;Â high blood pressure & coronary heart disease
-Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â obesity
It is thought that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the most abundant catechin in green tea,Â mimics the actions of insulin. Â This hasÂ positive healthÂ implications for people withÂ insulin resistanceÂ orÂ diabetesÂ [Kao et al] andÂ EGCG alsoÂ lowers blood pressureÂ almost as effectively as the ACE-inhibitor drug, Enalapril, having significant implications for people withÂ cardiovascular diseaseÂ [Kim et al].
Green Tea in Population Studies
Population studies and several randomized controlled studies (where one group is â€œtreatedâ€ and the other group is not) have shown thatÂ waist circumference is smallerÂ andÂ levels of body fatÂ is lessÂ the more green tea consumedÂ Â [Phung et al] . Â The anti-obesity effects of green tea are usually attributed to the presence of catechins [Naigle].
Green Tea Catechins
WhileÂ catechinsÂ make up ~ 30% of green teaâ€™s dry weight (of which 60â€“80% are catechins) oolong and black tea, which are produced from partially fermented or completely fermented tea leaves contains approximatelyÂ half the catechin content of green tea.
Drinking 8-10 cups of green tea per day is enough to increase blood levels of EGCG into a measurably significant range [Kim et al].Â Matcha,Â a powdered green tea used in the Japanese tea ceremony and popular in cold green tea beverages such as bubble tea, containsÂ 137 times greater concentration of EGCGÂ than China Green Tips (Mao Jian) tea [Weiss et al].Â
Green Tea Catechin Content of Brewed Green Tea vs Matcha Powder
A typical cup (250 ml) of brewed green tea contains 50â€“100 mg catechinsÂ and 30â€“40 mg caffeine, with the amount of tea leaves, water temperature and brewing time all affecting the green tea catechin content in each cup.
A gramÂ (~1/3 tsp)Â of matcha powder contains 105 mg of catechinsÂ (of which 61 mg are EGCs) and contains 35 mg of caffeine. Most matcha drinks made at local tea and coffee houses are made and served cold and containÂ ~1 tsp of matcha powder which contains ~315 mg of catechinsÂ (of which ~183 mg are EGCs). Â Since there is no brewing time involved in the preparation of cold matcha beverages, the amount of catechins remains relatively constant in each cup. Variation in catechin content in matcha powder is largely due to where the plant is grown and how it is processed.Â
Weight Loss Effect of Green Tea Catechins
A 2009 meta-analysis (combining the data from all studies) of 11 green tea catechin studies found that subjects consuming between 270 to 1200 mg green tea catechins / day (i.e.Â 1 â€“ 4 tsp of matcha powder per day)Â lost an average of 1.31 kg (~ 3 lbs) overÂ 12 weeksÂ [Hursel].Â
Decreased Body Fat & Abdominal Fat even without Significant Weight Loss
The effect of green tea catechins on body composition is significant even when the weight loss between â€œtreatedâ€ and â€œuntreatedâ€ groups is small (~5 lbs in 12 weeks).
Even with such small amounts of weight loss;
– theÂ total amount of abdominal fat decreases 25 times moreÂ with green tea catechin consumptionÂ than without it (âˆ’7.7 vs. âˆ’0.3%)
–Â total amount of subcutaneous abdominal fatÂ (theÂ fat just below the skin of the abdomen)Â decreases almost 8 timesÂ more with green tea catechin consumptionÂ thank without itÂ (âˆ’6.2 vs. 0.8%).Â
How do Green Tea Catechins Work?
The mechanisms by which green tea catechinsÂ reduce body weightÂ andÂ reduce the amount of total body fatÂ and in particular reduce the amount ofÂ abdominal fatÂ are still being investigated. Â It is currently thought that green tea catechins;
-Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â increased thermogenesis; i.e. increased heat production which would result in increased energy expenditure (or calorie burning)
-Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â increase fat oxidationÂ (or using body fat as energy)
-Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â decrease appetite
-Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â down-regulation of enzymes involved in liver fat metabolism
-Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â decrease nutrient absorptionÂ
Green Tea Absorption
Green tea catechins are absorbed in the intestine. Â Since the presence of food significantly decreases their absorption, green tea catechins are best taken 1/2 an hour before meals or 2 hours after meals.
The timing of green tea catechin intake may also affect the absorption and metabolism of glucose. Â A study by Park et al found that when green tea catechins were given one hour before to a glucose (sugar) load, glucose uptake was inhibited and was also accompanied by an increase in insulin levels. Taking green tea catechins an hour before consuming highly sweet foods may be beneficial for those with insulin resistance or diabetes.
Green Tea Catechins and Milk
There seems to be some dispute in the literature as to whether the casein (a protein) in milk binds green tea catechins, making them unavailable for absorption in the body, which is why matcha drinks are often made with non-milk beverages such as soy milk, almond milk or rice milk (that donâ€™t have casein).
Consuming betweenÂ 1 â€“ 4 tsp of matcha powder per day (270 to 1200 mg green tea catechins / day) is sufficient to result in weight loss of approximately 3 lbs in 12 weeks (with no other dietary or activity changes) and to significantly decrease body fatÂ composition and reduce the quantity of abdominal fat.Â
***Warning to pregnant women***
While EGCG has also been found to be similar in its effect to etoposide anddoxorubicin, a potent anti-cancer drug used in chemotherapy [Bandele et al], high intake of polyphenolic compounds during pregnancy is suspected to increase risk of neonatal leukemia. Bioflavonoid supplements (including green tea catechins) should not be used by pregnant women [Paolini et al].
Recipe for Iced MatchaÂ
For those of you that have been asking what I am always drinking in that thermosâ€¦thisÂ is it!
-Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â 1 tsp matcha (green tea) powderÂ (contains ~315 mg catechins)
-Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â 500 ml soy milk
-Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â crushed ice
Place 1 tsp matcha powder in a small stainless steel sieve and gently press through the sieve into a small bowl with the back of a small spoon
Put the sieved matcha powder into a ceramic or glass bowl (not metal, as the tannins in the tea will react and give the beverage and â€œoffâ€ metalic taste)
With a bamboo whisk (available at Japanese and Korean grocery stores), whisk 3 Tbsp boiled and cooled water into the matcha powder, until all the lumps are gone and the mixture is smooth
Place 1/4 cup of crushed ice in the bottom of a tall (16 oz / 500 ml) glass
Pour matcha and water mixture over ice in the glass
Fill glass with soy milk (or almond milk or rice milk) *
* I use 2/3 unsweetened soy milk and 1/3 sweetened soy milk
Note: once the matcha is blended with the soy milk, the tannins in the green tea are neutralized and no longer react with metal, so the beverage can then be put in an insulated stainless steel cup.
Bray GA. Lifestyle and pharmacological approaches to weight loss: efficacy and safety. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93:S81â€“88.
Brown WJ, Williams L, Ford JH, Ball K, Dobson AJ. Identifying the energy gap: magnitude and determinants of 5-year weight gain in midage women. Obes Res 2005;13:1431â€“41.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Overweight and obesity. http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/index.html accessed Nov 20. 2009
Hursel R, Viechtbauer W, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. The effects of green tea on weight loss and weight maintenance: a meta-analysis. Int J Obes (Lond) 2009;33:956â€“61.
Kao YH, Chang MJ, Chen CL, Tea, Obesity, and Diabetes, Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 50 (2): 188â€“210,Â February 2006
Kim JA,Â Formoso G,Â Li Y,Â Potenza MA,Â Marasciulo FL,Â Montagnani M,Â Quon MJ., Epigallocatechin gallate, a green tea polyphenol, mediates NO-dependent vasodilation using signaling pathways in vascular endothelium requiring reactive oxygen species and Fyn, J Biol Chem.Â 2007 May 4;282(18):13736-45. Epub 2007 Mar 15.
Nagle DG, Ferreira D, Zhou YD. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG): chemical and biomedical perspective. Phytochemistry 2006;67:1849â€“55.
Park JH, Jin JY, Baek WK, Park SH, Sung HY, Kim YK, et al. Ambivalent role of gallated catechins in glucose tolerance in humans: a novel insight into nonabsorbable gallated catechin-derived inhibitors of glucose absorption. J Phyisiol Pharmacol 2009;60:101â€“9.
Popkin BM. Recent dynamics suggest selected countries catching up to US obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:284Sâ€“8S.
Phung OJ, Baker WL, Matthews LJ, Lanosa M, Thorne A, Coleman CI. Effect of green tea catechins with or without caffeine on anthropometric measures: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:73â€“81.
Paolini, M, Sapone, A, Valgimigli, L, “Avoidance of bioflavonoid supplements during pregnancy: a pathway to infant leukemia?”.Â Mutat Res 527Â (1â€“2): 99â€“101.Â (Jun 2003)
Rains, TM, Agarwal S, Maki KC, â€œAntiobesity effects of green tea catechins; a mechanistic reviewâ€ J or Nutr Biochem 22(2011):1-7
The “Paleo Diet” is a modern style of eating based on an ancient dietÂ believedÂ to have be eaten during the Paleolithic era â€” a period of about 2.5Â million years which ended around 10,000Â years ago with the development of agricultureÂ and grain-based diets. Â Proponents of this diet argue that modern human populations eating diets thought to beÂ similar to those of Paleolithic societiesÂ are largely free of Â “diseases of affluence”, including atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries).
The “Paleo Diet” consistsÂ mainly of fish, grass-fed pasture raised meats, eggs, vegetables, fruit, fungi, rootsÂ and nuts (and excludes grains, legumes/pulses, dairy products, potatoes, refined salt, refined sugar and processed oils).
But is atherosclerosis a disease of modern human beings related to our current diet and lifestyle factors? Â Its prevalence in pre-industrial populations from four totally different regions of the world with very different dietary intakes, has now been documented.
A new study published in the peer-review journal The Lancet (March 10, 2013) has obtained whole body CT scans of 137 mummies from four different geographical regions representing entirely different populations (ancient Egypt, ancient Peru, the Ancestral Puebloans of southwest America, and the Unangan of the Aleutian Islands) spanning more than 4000 years of history. Â The ancient Egyptians and Peruvians were farmers, the ancestral Puebloans were forager-farmers, and the Unangans of the Aleutian Islands were hunter-gatherers without agriculture. Â None of the cultures was known to be vegetarian and all were believed to be quite physically active.
Diagnosis of Atherosclerosis
For the purpose of the study, a diagnosis of atherosclerosis was made if a calcified plaque was seen in the wall of an artery and probable if calcifications were seen along the expected course of an artery
Findings of the Study
Researchers identified atherosclerosis in more than a third of the mummified specimens, raising the possibility that humans have a natural predisposition to the disease. In total, whole-body CT scans were performed on 137 mummies, including 76 ancient Egyptians, 51 ancient Peruvians, five ancestral Puebloans, and five Unangan hunter-gatherers. Probable or definite atherosclerosis was evident in 34% of the mummies; 29 ancient Egyptians, 13 ancient Peruvians, two ancestral Puebloans and three Unangan mummies.
Significance of these Findings
Atherosclerosis was considerably more common in ancient populations than previously believed.
In a presentation at a recent conference (March 9 â€“ 11, 2013) at the American College of Cardiology 2013 Scientific Sessions in San Francisco, California led byÂ DrÂ Randall ThompsonÂ (University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine) and reported on Medscape Today News, March 16, 2013 the lead researcher of the study said;
“our findings greatly increase the number of ancient people known to have atherosclerosis and show for the first time that the disease was common in several ancient cultures with varying lifestyles, diets, and genetics, across a wide geographical distance and over a very long span of human history. These findings suggest that our understanding of the causative factors of atherosclerosis is incomplete and that atherosclerosis could be inherent to the process of human aging.”
Ancient Paleo Diet
According to Dr. Thompson, the diets of these peoples were quite different from each other, as were the climates.Â Local plant foods that were indigenous to each population group varied greatly over the wide geographical distance between these regions of the world. Fish and game were present in all of the cultures, but protein sources varied from domesticated cattle among the Egyptians to an almost entirely marine diet among the Unangans.”
Age and Cause of Death
Based on calculations using architectural changes in the bone structures, the average age of death was 43 years old and age was positively correlated Â with atherosclerosis. Researchers note that all four populations lived at a time when infections would have been a common cause of death and the high level of chronic infection and inflammation might have promoted the inflammatory aspects of atherosclerosis.Â These findings are consistent with the accelerated course of atherosclerosis seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and lupus today.
Atherosclerosis is not just a modern phenomenon; it was common in four pre-industrial populations across a wide span of human history, including a pre-agricultural hunter-gather population. The presence of atherosclerosis in pre-modern human beings suggests that the disease is an inherent component of human aging and not associated with any specific diet or lifestyle.
While eating unlimited amounts of any calorically-dense food such as chocolate may increase the risk ofÂ overweight or obesity, consumption of chocolate, especially dark chocolate has been associated with several health benefits.
What is chocolate?
Chocolate is a food produced from the seed of the tropical theobroma cacao tree. Â The seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste and must be fermented to develop the flavor. Â After fermentation the beans are dried then cleaned and roasted and then the shell is removed to produce cacao nibs. The nibs are then ground to cocoa mass;Â pure chocolate in rough form. Since the cocoa mass is usually liquefied then molded with or without other ingredients, it is called chocolate liquor.
The liquor also may be processed into two components: cocoa solids & cocoa butter.Â The cocoa solids are responsible for the brown colour in dark and milk chocolate. Â Dark chocolate contains primarily cocoa solids and cocoa butter, in varying proportions.Â Milk chocolate combines cocoa solids, cocoa butter or other fat, and sugar as well as milk products such as milk powder or condensed milk. Â White chocolate contains cocoa butter, sugar and milk solids but no cocoa solids and therefore reallyÂ isn’tÂ chocolate at all.
Chocolate as an ancient medicine
Recognition of cocoa’s health properties is nothing new. As far back as the 16th-century Spanish priests were aware of the nutritional properties of the highly prized Mayan cocoa drink and sanctioned its use as a food substitute during periods of fasting.
Chocolate and cardiovascular health
It is well known that certain plant polyphenols, in particular the flavonoids, act to lower the risk of both cardiovascular disease and cancer. Â Flavanols are known to be present in red wine, tea and various fruits and berries but dark chocolate also contains large amounts of flavanols and has a cardio-protective role in the diet.
Chocolate and cough suppression
The presence of theobromine in chocolate has been shown to be more effective than codeine when it comes toÂ suppressingÂ a cough. Â According to a 2005 study published in the FASEB Journal, researchers induced coughing in 10 healthy volunteers (using capsaicin fromÂ chiliÂ pepper) and then measured how much capsaicinÂ was needed to induce a cough afterÂ subjectsÂ had taken theobromine (found in dark chocolate), codeine or a placebo. Â In comparison with the placebo, when subjects had taken theobromine they needed around a third more capsaicin to produce a cough, whereas they needed only marginally higher levels of capsaicin after taking codeine. Â Theobromine works by suppressing the activity of the vagus nerve which causes coughing. Â Best of all, theobromine doesn’t produce any adverse effects on the cardiovascular or central nervous systems. Maria Belvisi, one of the study’s authors commented: “Normally the effectiveness of any treatment is limited by the dosage you can give someone. With theobromine having no demonstrated side effects in this study, it may be possible to give far bigger doses, further increasing its effectivenessâ€.
Chocolateâ€™s beneficial effect on blood pressure
According to a 2002 study, eating just 30 calories a day of dark chocolate per day can help lower blood pressure without weight gain or other side effects.Â This effect has been attributed to dark chocolates high content of cocoa polyphenols,
Researchers found that those who ate 6.3 gm of dark chocolate per day of dark chocolate (about 30 calories and 30 mg of polyphenols) saw their average systolic blood pressure drop by 2.9 mm Hg and diastolic BP by 1.9 mm Hg. Â Those diagnosed with hypertension (high blood pressure) had their blood pressure drop by 18% as a result of consuming 6.3 gm of dark chocolate. Furthermore, none of the subjects in the study experienced any changes in body weight, blood lipids (cholesterol) or blood glucose (sugar) levels.
Subjects that ate the same amount of white chocolate (which contains no cocoa and therefore no polyphenols) had no change in their systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Â Although the magnitude of the blood pressure reduction was small, the effects are clinically noteworthy.
On a population basis, it has been estimated that a 3-mm Hg reduction in systolic blood pressure would reduce the relative risk of death by stroke by 8 % and of death from coronary artery disease by 5%, and of all-cause death by 4%.
It is proposed by one of the authors of a 2006 study (Dr. Naomi Fisher) that the decrease in arterial stiffness noted in subjects after consuming 100 gm of dark chocolate was due to the effect of the flavonoids in the cocoa acting on an enzyme called nitric oxide synthase; resulting in dilatation of blood vessels,Â improve kidney function and lower blood pressure.
Chocolate toxic to pets?
Cocoa solids (found in dark chocolate and milk chocolate) contains alkaloids such astheobromine and phenethylamine which, as noted above have some positive physiological benefits in humans but it is the presence of theobromine which renders it toxic to some animals, including dogs and cats. Â Because white chocolate does not contain any cocoa solids, and thus no theobromine, it can be safely eaten by animals.
Other Benefits of Chocolate:
Chocolate also holds benefits apart from protecting your heart:
1. It stimulates endorphin production, which gives a feeling of pleasure.
2. It contains serotonin, which is a neurotransmitter that has an anti-depressant effect
3. It contains small quantities of phenylethylamine, another neurotransmitter that creates feelings of attraction and excitement in the brain’s pleasure centre. (Maybe thatâ€™s where chocolate came to have a reputation as an aphrodisiac?)
4. It tastes good!
A little goes a long way
Chocolate is still a high-calorie, high-fat food. Most of the studies done used no more than 100 grams, or about 3.5 ounces, of dark chocolate a day to get the benefits. One bar of dark chocolate has around 400 calories. If you eat half a bar of chocolate a day, you must balance those 200 calories by eating less of something else.
To indulge a chocolate habit without regrets, choose dark varieties containing at least 70 % cocoa solids and check low levels of cocoa butter. Try to make a little go a long way. Â Research indicates that you get maximum benefit with fewer ill effects from just one or two squares of dark chocolate per day.
Fisher ND, Hollenberg NK. Aging and vascular responses to flavanol-rich cocoa. J Hypertens. 2006 Aug; 24(8):1575-80.
Francene M Steinberg, Monica M Bearden, Carl L Keen, Cocoa and chocolate flavonoids: Implications for cardiovascular health, JADA 2003; 103(2)215-223,
Taubert D, Renate R, Clara L, et al. Effects of Low Habitual Cocoa Intake on Blood Pressure and Bioactive Nitric Oxide., JAMA 2010; 298 (1): 49-60.
Usmani OS, Belvisi MG, Patel HJ et al, The FASEBÂ Journal 2005 Vol 19, pgs 231-233Theobromine inhibits sensory nerve activation and cough
Did you set a New Yearâ€™s Resolution to lose weight this year or exercise or eat healthier? How likely are you to be successful in meeting that goal?
A landmark study from the University of Scranton’s Journal of Clinical Psychology by Norcross et al sheds much light on this subject.
Of the 415 study participants in the study, 159 made New Yearâ€™s resolutions (were resolvers) and 256 did not make New Yearâ€™s resolutions (were non-resolvers). Ages of the subjects ranged from 18 to 85 years, with the average age being 43 years. Most of the participants were white (99%) and Â¾ were women. Those that made New Years resolutions and those that didnâ€™t were similar in terms of demographics, problem history and behavioral goals.
NUMBER ONE NEW YEARS RESOLUTIONS â€“ TO LOSE WEIGHT
The number one New Year’s resolution of this study conducted in 2002 was to lose weight and the fifth most important goal was to exercise and eat healthy.
In December 2012, the same researcher that conducted the 2002 Scranton study conducted a Harris poll of 3,036 adults and found that the New Yearâ€™s Resolutions that people make were the same as those ten years earlier, with â€œweight lossâ€ still being first (21%), exercising being second (14%) and eating healthier, fifth (7%).
SUMMARY OF THE STUDY
1. Making change before New Years: The study found that those that started to eat better and exercise before New Years were actually 11 times more likely to be successful than those that started by making a New Yearâ€™s resolution.
2. The good news of New Yearâ€™s Resolutions: The good news, while limited, is that those that made New Year resolutions succeeded in the very short run; with the success rate being approximately 10x higher than the success rate of those desiring to change their behavior, but not actually making a resolution
3. The harsh reality ofÂ New Yearâ€™s Resolutions:
a. After only a week into the New YearÂ Â½ of those that started the New Year with a resolution to lose weight, eat healthy or get in shape had already given up!
b. By the end of January83% percent of people that set New Yearâ€™s resolution to lose weight, exercise of eat healthier have already given up!!
Only 8% of people are actually successful in achieving their New Yearâ€™s resolutions!
SO NOW WHAT?
If your New Yearâ€™s resolutionÂ isn’tÂ enough to be successful in losing weight and eating healthier, how can you successfully make the dietary changes you desire?
Recent research published in the European Journal of Social Psychology from University College London found that it takes about 66 days (i.e. 2-3 months) to actually create a habit (Lally et al, 2010), so the professional support of a Registered Dietitian during this critical time can make all the difference .
A customized eating plan based on your own lifestyle and food preferences will not only enable you to achieve your weight loss goals gradually over the next few months, but as importantly, keep them off over the long term.
Lally, P., van Jaarsveld, C. H. M., Potts, H. W. W. and Wardle, J. (2010), How are habits formed: Modelling habit formation in the real world. Eur. J. Soc. Psychol., 40: 998â€“1009.
Norcross, JC et al, Auld lang syne: success predictors, change processes, and self-reported outcomes of New Year’s resolvers and nonresolvers. J Clin Psychol. 2002 Apr;58(4):397-405
New Yearâ€™s Resolutions for 2013 â€“ Changeology, Dr. John C. Norcross
Multivitamins are used to prevent vitamin and mineral deficiency; however there is a common belief that taking multivitamins may prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD). Â This study published in theÂ November 7, 2012 of the Journal of the American Medical Association demonstrated among this population of US male physicians that taking a daily multivitamin for more than a decade of treatment and follow-upÂ did not reduce major cardiovascular events, including nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), non-fatal stroke and CVD mortality.
The Physicians’ Health Study II (PHS II) is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigating several different vitamins including beta-carotene, vitamin E, vitamin C and a daily multivitamin. PHS II launched in 1997 with continued treatment and follow-up through 2011. The other three arms of the study looking at beta-carotene, vitamin E andÂ vitamin C have been previously published. This study on the use of multivitamins, was just released November 7, 2012 and is entitled â€œMultivitamins in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Men – The Physicians’ Health Study II Randomized Controlled Trialâ€
A total of 14,641 male US physicians initially aged 50 years or older, including 754 men with a history of CVD at randomization, were enrolled and randomly assigned to either receive a daily multivitamin or a placebo. Of men enrolled in PHS II, 5% had a history of MI or stroke.
Over an average follow-up of ~11 years, 1732 CV events occurred, but this rate of CV events was no higher among men taking placebo than those taking a daily multivitamin.
There was no statistically significant difference in rates of MI, all stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, ischemic stroke, congestive heart failure, angina, coronary revascularization, CVD mortality, or overall mortality.
No major differences in negative effects were seen between the group receiving the multivitamin or the placebo
There is a concern that people who think they are benefiting from taking a daily multivitamin may be less likely to participate in preventive health behaviors, such as diet and exercise that are both known to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, people with heart disease or risk factors may continue to lead unhealthy lives yet take daily vitamins supplements in the hope of reducing their risk of future problems while avoiding making the needed lifestyle changes. This distraction from effective CVD prevention is viewed as the main â€˜hazardâ€™ of daily multivitamin supplementation.
The PHS II participants as a whole, exercised regularly, ate reasonably well, and didn’t smoke so the group probably represented, on average, a well-nourished population who already have adequate or optimum intake levels of nutrients, for which supplementation may offer no benefits. Multivitamin supplementation may play a role in nutritionally at-risk populations or those with nutritional deficiencies.
HOW TO KNOW IF YOU ARE GETTING ADEQUATE NUTRIENTS?
The best way to determine if you are getting all the nutrients in the amounts you need for your age and gender is to have your diet assessed by a Registered Dietitian. Â BetterByDesign Nutrition has several different packages to meet your needs. Â Remember, that visits to a Registered Dietitian are covered by most extended benefit plans. Â As well, many companies have Employment Assistance Programs (EAPs) that will cover short term visits to a Registered Dietitian. Â Click on the “Assessment Options” to see the various services we offer.
A new Statistics Canada report released on September 20, 2012 finds that almost a third (31.5%) of 5- to 17-year olds were overweight (19.8%) or obese (11.7%) in 2009 to 2011. While the percentage who were overweight was similar across age groups, the prevalence of obesity was almost double in boys overall than girls (15% versus 8%). In children aged 5 to 11 years, boys are more than three times likely to be obese (19.5%) compared to girls of the same ages (6.3 %).Â Experts say that the new obesity cutoffs of the World Health Organization standards used to measure obesity were not enough to explain these findings.
THE STUDY POPULATION
The study (Obesity in Children and Adolescents: Results from the 2009 to 2011 Canadian Health Measures Study) was based on actual measured heights and weights of 2,123 children and adolescents in Canada aged 5 to 17, between the years 2009 and 2011.
BMI – MEASURE OF OBESITY
The data involved only one measure of overweight, BMI (Body Mass Index) which is the defined as a personâ€™s body mass divided by the square of their height. Â Another recent Canadian study referred to in this report demonstrated that over time, waist circumference among Canadians of all ages has increased more than BMI, indicating the need to monitor waist circumference.
BODY FAT & WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE – SIGNIFICANCE
Evidence for adults indicates that changes in the distribution of body fat such as increased waist circumference, are associated with elevated health risk. Weight carried around the abdomen (in so-called “apple” shaped people) is a greater risk than weight distributed overall or in the hips and thighs (as in so-called “pear-shaped” people).Â Even when the prevalence of BMIÂ doesn’tÂ change, distribution of body fat centered around the waist is associated with increased health risk.
CHILDREN WITH ADULT-ONSET ILLNESSES
Excess weight in childhood is increasingly being linked to what were once thought to be adult-onset illnesses including Type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure (hypertension), abnormal blood fats / high cholesterol, hardening of the arteries and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Studies have shown that adolescents who are overweight have a 14 times increased risk of having a heart attack before they turn 50. Children that are obese also have higher levels of depression and low self-esteem and are more likely to be teased or bullied at school.
EFFECT OF “SCREEN TIME”Â
The amount of time spent in front of a TV, computer, video game or texting or surfing on smart-phones (so-called “screen-timeâ€) has been found to be strongly correlated with childhood obesity. Children and adolescents that spend two hours or more of screen time per day are twice as likely to be overweight or obese than those who spend an hour or less of screen time. Â Studies have also shown that screen time is higher amongst boys than girls, which may be related to higher rates of overweight and obesity found in boys compared with girls.
WHAT DOES THIS STUDY MEAN TO ME?
It would be helpful to encourage children of all ages to participate inÂ regularÂ daily physical activity and decrease their “screen time” to less than 1 hour a day (half the current amount associated with childhood overweight and obesity).
As well, to make sure that children (as well as adults) are within a healthy body weight, its recommended that they have their waist circumference monitored regularly as well as having their Body Mass Index (BMI) calculated and body fat percentage determined.
Our Dietitian is very experienced working with children and can assess your child”s current weight and nutritional status and make recommendations to reduce their risk ofÂ acquiringÂ diseases including Type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure (hypertension), abnormal blood fats / high cholesterol and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
If you are concerned about weight management in you or your children, Â please click on the “Contact Us” tab to find out how to contact us.
A Statistics Canada Report released in 2010 indicated that while 90% of Canadians 6- to 79-years old have enough Vitamin D in their blood for bone health, 10% (or roughly 3 million people) have concentrations considered to be inadequate and 1.1 million Canadians (or 4% of the population) is actually Vitamin D deficient; levels low enough to cause rickets in children and osteoporosis in adults. Â The highest prevalence of deficiency is in men aged 20 to 39, with about 7% considered Vitamin D deficient.
WHAT IS VITAMIN D?
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in very few foods and is added to others (especially dairy products).Â Vitamin D is also produced in the body when ultraviolet rays from the sun makes contact with exposed skin and triggers vitamin D synthesis.
WHAT DOES VITAMIN D DO?
Vitamin D is essential for bone growth and bone remodeling but without sufficient vitamin D, bones can become thin, brittle, or misshaped. Together with calcium, vitamin D helps protect older adults from osteoporosis and children against rickets. Vitamin D is alsoÂ known to be associated with a lower risk of breast and colon cancer, some cardiovascular disease and other diseases like multiple sclerosis.
HOW MUCH IS ENOUGH?
Vitamin D is measured in nanomoles per litre (nmol/L).
Levels below 27.5 nmol/L is are considered to indicate deficiency.
Levels below 37.5 nmol/L are considered inadequate for bone health
It is suggested that 75 nmol/L is optimal for overall health.
“Vitamin D status of Canadians as measured in the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey” was based on data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) which collected physical measures of health and wellness from a nationally representative sample of Canadians aged 6 to 79 years, including blood and urine samples.
Data are from 5,306 individuals aged 6 to 79 yearsÂ from all regions of Canada, representing all ages, both genders and all racial backgrounds.Â Measurement of Vitamin D as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations were determined from blood tests, and factors known to affect vitamin D status were also assessed.
Ten percent of Canadians (or roughly 3 million people) have concentrations considered to be inadequate and 1.1 million Canadians (or 4% of the population) is actually vitamin D deficient; levels low enough to cause rickets in children and osteoporosis in adults. Â The highest prevalence of deficiency is in men aged 20 to 39; with about 7% considered vitamin D deficient.
An estimated 4% of the population (5% of men and 3% of women) had levels indicating vitamin D deficiency. Â The highest prevalence of deficiency (7%) was among men aged 20 to 39 years of age.
The report states that much higher concentrations (> 75 nmol/L) are needed for overall health and disease preventionÂ and according to this report only 1/3 of people in Canada are above this level.Â
Frequent milk consumption was related to better vitamin D levels in people of all ages; with those that drank milk more than once a day averaging 75 nmol/L. Â Even with drinking milk more than once a day, vitamin D levels were still considered inadequate for overall health and disease prevention. Â Those Â that drank milk less than once a day had Vitamin D levels of 63 nmol/L
The average difference between people whose racial background was white (Caucasian) and people of other racial backgrounds was approximately 19 nmol/L, with whites having higher levels of Vitamin D.
SOURCES OF VITAMIN D
Vitamin D comes from foods and supplements, and from sun exposure.
There are only small amounts of vitamin D naturally occurring in foods such as oily cold-water fish (85 gm of light canned tuna contains 200 IU) and only a small amount of vitamin D is found in fortified foods such as milk (1 cup of milk contains 100 IU of vitamin D).
Vitamin D can be made by the body when the skin is exposed to sunlight. During the spring and summer months in Canada, daily sun exposure (if not wearing sunscreen or clothes that cover much of the body) may produce sufficient amounts of vitamin D, however many people avoid this due to the increased risk of skin cancer.
Even in sunny parts of Canada, Vitamin D production from the sun from late October to early March is insufficient and Vitamin D supplements are recommended.
As well, the skinâ€™s ability to produce vitamin D drops with age, putting people older than 50 years of age, at risk.
Additional factors such as the time of day, amount of cloud cover, smog and the natural colour of oneâ€™s skin (melanin content) all affect the amount of vitamin D synthesis available.
VITAMIN D FROM THE SUN versus USE OF VITAMIN D SUPPLEMENTS
In northern climates, such as Canada which is above the 49th parallel, there are insufficient UV rays for 6 months of the year or more for adequate vitamin D synthesis.
The Canadian Cancer Society recommends that adults living inÂ CanadaÂ should consider taking Vitamin D supplementation of 1,000 international units (IU) a day during the fall and winter months or year round if they are older (>50 years of age), have dark skin, don’t go outside often or if they do, wear sunscreen or clothing that covers most of their skin.
HOW DO I MAKE SURE TO GET ENOUGH VITAMIN D?
If you are an adult under the age of 50 years of age living in Canada, it is recommended that you supplement your diet with 1000 IU Vitamin D / day, more so if you are living in the Lower Mainland where there is often inadequate sunshine, even in the summer months.
Our Registered Dietitian can assess your diet and make recommendations to ensure you are getting sufficientÂ micro-nutrientsÂ (vitamins and minerals), including Vitamin D.
A study published in May 2010 in the Canadian Medical Association Journal and based on data conducted over an 11 year periodÂ was the first to compare cardiovascular risk factors and associated heart disease and stroke prevalence across the four major racial-ethnic groups living in the same geographic area, with a similar living environment and similar access to health care. Â The report found thatÂ Whites (Caucasian), South Asians, Blacks and Chinese had striking differences in cardiovascular risk profiles.
The study entitled “Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Profiles Among Ethnic Groups” was based on population health surveys between 1996 and 2007 and was conducted by the Toronto-based Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. Â It compared data from 154,653 Caucasians (Whites), 3,038 Chinese, 3,364 South Asians and 2,742 blacks who participated in Statistics Canadaâ€™s cross-sectional national population health survey between 1996 and 2007.
Risk factors for cardiovascular disease includeÂ smoking, diabetes, obesity, hypertension (high blood pressure) as well as psychological or social stress.
FAVORABLEÂ DIFFERENCES IN RISK BETWEEN ETHNIC GROUPS
The study reported that Chinese had the most favorable cardiovascular risk factor profile with only 4.3% of the population reporting two or more major cardiovascular risk factors, such as smoking, diabetes, obesity and hypertension (high blood pressure).
South Asians had the next mostÂ favorableÂ cardiovascular risk profile (7.9%), followed by Whites (10.1%) and Blacks (11.1%).
PREVALENCE OF RISK FACTORS BY RACE
The study also found that smoking, obesity and stress were significantly more common in Whites, while diabetes and hypertension were much more prevalent among Blacks and South Asians.
WHAT COULD THE STUDY MEAN FOR YOU?
Risk factors such as smoking, diabetes, obesity and hypertension (high blood pressure) are considered to be related to 90% of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, so being aware of these ethnic differences can help you, your doctor and your dietitian make lifestyle changes specific to your ethnicity, including;
diabetes and hypertension lifestyle intervention targeted to high-risk South Asians and Blacks
obesity-prevention programs for Black women and White men and women
encouraging physical activity among South Asian and Chinese populations
CONSULTING OUR REGISTERED DIETITIAN
If you have any of the risk factors known to be prevalent for your ethnic background, consider consulting with ourÂ Registered Dietitian. Â She is a food and nutrition expert and isÂ knowledgeableÂ and experienced to help you make the lifestyle changes needed to lower your risk of cardiovascular disease.